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Beyond the medical questions, a number of ethical concerns have arisen surrounding the manipulation of the human genome. Height, for example, can be influenced by hundreds of genetic variations, as well as environmental factors.

Post-Genomic Cardiology

The researchers in this instance have repaired a single gene mutation in this case a deletion on a single gene - a defect known to cause serious heart disease. Making changes to hundreds of genes controlling complex traits lies far beyond the scope of current technology and scientific understanding. More realistic moral dilemmas include the ethical implications of making permanent, heritable genomic edits that will affect the individual and any future offspring.

Despite the clear benefit of avoiding a heritable genetic disease, some ethicists voice concerns that germline modification could lead to generations of offspring who have not had an opportunity to consent to such interventions. However, even if non-existent beings can be said to have any right to consent to modifications, an issue of debate, parents are frequently permitted to make medical decisions on behalf of their children.

More worrying is the fact that we do not yet know what the long term effects of germline gene editing may be. Safety concerns must be prioritised; unintended changes to the genome could result in the development of cancers and other pathologies. Whilst testing techniques such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis PGD involves the destruction of a single non-vital cell to assess the genetic status of the embryo, every cell in an edited embryo must be assessed to ensure the absence of mosaicism and off-target effects, destroying the embryo.

Before CRISPR could be used on an implantable embryo, we must find another way to detect potentially harmful unintended effects. CRISPR-Cas9 technology needs to offer new options to couples at risk of having a child with a genetic disease, beyond current treatments such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis PGD.

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For the relatively small number of couples that would not be able to produce unaffected embryos for example, when both parents carry a homozygous mutation , CRISPR offers an opportunity that would not otherwise be available. But does the potential benefit — for a minority — justify the use of extensive resources, and the significant ethical objections that arise? There is a flip side to ethical arguments against gene editing. Are we not duty bound to investigate potentially safe and effective means of curing genetic disease?

Rather than wholeheartedly embracing or rejecting gene editing on the basis of ethical considerations, a middle ground would enable the use of CRISPR technology for therapeutic purposes only, against a backdrop of strict laws and regulation in the UK, by the HFEA.

We already regulate PGD in a similar way to ensure it is only used for medical purposes. Of course, it is hugely important that this technology is not rushed into use before it can be proven to be safe, and also that a societal consensus is reached regarding which applications should be permitted. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ageing disambiguation.

Developmental stage theories. Main article: Senescence. See also: Life extension. Main article: Ageing and society.

Ageing - Wikipedia

See also: Population ageing. Ageing brain Ageing movement control Ageing of Europe Ageing studies Anti-ageing movement Biodemography of human longevity Biogerontology Biological immortality Biomarkers of ageing Clinical geropsychology Death Epigenetic clock Evolution of ageing Genetics of ageing Gerontology Gerascophobia List of life extension-related topics Longevity Mitochondrial theory of ageing Neuroscience of ageing Old age Population ageing Progeria Stem cell theory of ageing Supercentenarian Transgenerational design.

Bibcode : Natur. Nature Submitted manuscript. Evolutionary Biology of Aging. New York: Oxford University Press. Lay summary. PLoS Biology. Exp Gerontol. Proc R Soc B. Cell Stem Cell. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 September Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology. Int J Audiol. Behavior Genetics of Cognition Across the Lifespan. Chem Cent J. Retrieved 11 September Surv Ophthalmol. Emerging from a blur towards an understanding of the molecular basis for this most common eye condition".

Exp Eye Res. Ageing Research Reviews.

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Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The Medical Clinics of North America.

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Rheumatology Oxford. Hearing Research. September Retrieved 14 August The Journals of Gerontology. Circ Res. Circulation Research. The New York Times.

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Retrieved 6 October The New England Journal of Medicine. Neurological rehabilitation 6th ed. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Warner Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence. The Psychology of Ageing: An Introduction. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. In Riddle, David R. Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms. Frontiers in Neuroscience. Hickson Eds. Communication disability in aging: from prevention to intervention.

April Bibcode : PLoSO.. Primary Care. Nussbaum, Teresa Thompson, James D.

Robinson Eds. Communication and aging. January J Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology. The Lancet. Retrieved on 11 April Wilkinson; Rebecca C.

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